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Nuclear Safeguards

A cross-divisional training path for the global context

First level Specializing Master

Nuclear Safeguards

The organizers

European high level institutions for Nuclear Safeguard

The I Level Specializing Master is organized by the Department of Energy – Politecnico di Milano and the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), in collaboration with European Joint research center (EU JRC), Academic institution participating in the European Nuclear Education Network, ESARDA partners and several International organizations (e.g. IAEA).

Politecnico di Milano

The aim

The I Level Specializing Master course on Nuclear Safeguards gives the opportunity to train and develop the competences of employees in order to enhance the efficiency of their actions in the field of nuclear safeguards and support the continuous development of a professional, competent and motivated workforce.

This attitude contributes directly to both the national nuclear safety and the implementation of the countries’ safeguards obligations under relevant agreements.

The context

The nuclear safeguards system is a key element of the international regime of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Over decades it has evolved into a multifaceted set of legal and technical measures aimed at verifying the compliance of States with their non-proliferation commitments in the nuclear sector.

The need for training

Due to high demands on technical competence especially in the nuclear field, the ongoing availability of new information, development of new reactor types, new safety mechanisms and new assessment methodologies, there is a huge need for general, in depth and/or specialized training for the staff of NRAs.

The outcome

The I Level Specializing Master will be organized as a cross-divisional training path, involving political science-forensics-nuclear scientific and technological areas, aimed to form key figures ready to be involved in the nuclear safeguards sector.


November 2023 – January 2025


Italy – Politecnico di Milano, JRC Ispra

Europe – Labs to be defined




Professionals and officials, with and without nuclear background, from national organisations, public organisations, R&D centres, industries.

Awarded title

I level Specializing Master on Nuclear Safeguards’ Degree

The Specializing Master is characterized by 60 ECTS with a final formal certification.

Blended format

8 months of online modules;

5/6 Weeks of in-presence labs;

3 months of project work.


Before the I Level Specializing Master start, here are some deadlines and dates to remember.
  • August, 2023
    Application opening
  • September 30th, 2021
    Application deadline
  • October, 2023
    Start of the selection phase
  • November, 2023
    Communication of admission
  • November, 2023
    I Level Specializing Master opening event
  • From November 2023 to January 2025
    I Level Specializing Master didactic activities

Didactic modules

Online modules

composed by digital contents (videos, quiz, additional materials), webinars, group activities

In-presence labs

held at Politecnico di Milano, JRC Labs in Italy and Europe and other European Labs which are part of the ENEN network

Project work

offers the opportunity to synthesise the knowledge acquired and critically apply it

  • 01. Introduction and basics
    • Nuclear technologies
    • Legal framework
    • Soft Skills
  • 02. History of non-proliferation and safeguards
    • History and Policy of Nuclear dual-use
    • EURATOM and IAEA Safeguards in the International Relations
    • Historical making of Proliferation risks and Non-Proliferation policies
  • 03. National and International legal frameworks
    • Basics of Non Proliferation Treaty
    • Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement
    • State regulators, State’s role, rights and responsibilities
  • 04. Fuel cycle and non-proliferation
    Elements of the fuel cycle: Mining, Conversion, Enrichment, Fuel fabrication, Reactors, Reprocessing, Waste Disposal, Aspects of Weaponisation, Physical Model/Pathway analysis
  • 05. Methodology for implementation of safeguards
    • Legal basis for nuclear material safeguards
    • Tools to verify nuclear material accounts
    • Political and legal options of inspectorates to apply sanctions in case of violations
  • Basic Labs
    2 weeks of experimental activities and visits
  • 06. Nuclear material accountancy and mathematical methods for nuclear safeguards
    • Facility Attachments and Euratom safeguards regulation
    • Nuclear material accountancy concepts
    • Analytical methods and game theoretical concepts
  • 07. Destructive analysis
    • Destructive Assay (DA) techniques
    • Practical exercises with detectors currently approved for safeguards inspections
  • 08. Non-destructive measurements
    • Non-Destructive Assays (NDA) used for the measurement of nuclear material
    • Introduction on the basic principles of NDA techniques
  • 09. Verification and monitoring techniques incl. containment and surveillance
    • Design Information Verification
    • Process monitoring approaches
    • Sealing technologies
  • 10. Export control
    • Main principles ruling nuclear trade control
    • Analysis of international and regional legally and politically instruments
    • General principles of international trade
  • 11. Nuclear security
    • Locations and use of nuclear and radiological materials
    • Risks of misuse of nuclear and radiological materials
    • Basics of physical protection, detection technologies and nuclear forensics analysis
  • Advanced Labs
    3/4 weeks of training on the job
  • 12. Future challenges in safeguards
    Novel technologies, approaches and methodologies
  • Project work
    Individual work or in pairs, resume and deepen the work done during the Advanced Labs